| About Nigeria
Nigeria is a Federal Republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with influences from the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. However, the President of Nigeria is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Nigerian politics takes place within a framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic, whereby Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the legislature, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Together the two chambers make up the law-making body in Nigeria called the National Assembly. The highest judiciary arm of government in Nigeria is the Supreme Court of Nigeria. Nigeria also practices Baron de Montesquieu's theory of the separation of powers. The National Assembly serves as a check on the executive arm of government.
The law of Nigeria is based on the rule of law and the independence of the Judiciary, and also on the British common law because of the long history of British colonial influence. The legal system is therefore similar to the common law systems used in England and Wales and in other Commonwealth countries. The constitutional framework for the legal system is provided by the Constitution of Nigeria.
There are however, four distinct systems of law in Nigeria:
- English Law, which is derived from its colonial past with Britain;
- Common law, (case law development since colonial independence);
- Customary law, which is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practices;
- Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Hausa and Muslim north of the country.
Like the United States, there is a Judicial branch with a Supreme Court which is regarded as the highest court of the land.
The president is elected by universal suffrage. He/She is both the chief of state and head of government and heads the Federal Executive Council, or cabinet.
The executive branch is divided into Federal Ministries, headed by a minister appointed by the President, who must include at least one member of each of the 36 states in his cabinet. The President's appointments are confirmed by the Senate of Nigeria. In some cases a Federal minister is responsible for more than one ministry (e.g. Environment and Housing may be combined), and a minister may be assisted by one or more ministers of State. Each ministry also has a Permanent Secretary, who is a senior civil servant.
The ministries are responsible for various parastatals (government-owned corporations) such as universities (Education), National Broadcasting Commission (Information) and Nigerian National Petroleum Corp (Petroleum). Other parastatals are the responsibility of the Office of the Presidency, such as the Independent National Electoral Commission, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Federal Civil Service Commission.
The National Assembly of Nigeria has two chambers. The House of Representatives is presided over by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. It has 360 members, elected for a four year term in single-seat constituencies. The Senate is presided upon by the President of the Senate. It has 109 members, elected for a four year term in 36 three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the country's 36 states) and one seat in a single-seat constituency (the federal capital, Abuja).
The judicial branch consists mainly of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, which is the highest court in the land. It is presided upon by the Chief Justice of Nigeria and thirteen associate justices, appointed by the President of Nigeria on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council and subject to confirmation by the Senate.
Political parties and elections
Nigeria runs a multi-party democracy. At a time there were more than 40 registered political parties. Presently they number about 25. At elections conducted by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) all the political parties may field candidates and take part in the elections. This ensures that all interests are represented and everyone has a right to his/her choice and opinion.
The country also adopts to universal adult suffrage. All adults from the age of 18 may register and vote at elections. The electoral Commission specifies the general conditions for candidates aspiring to contest for elective positions.
The federation is divided in 36 states and 1 territory*; Federal Capital Territory (Abuja)*, Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Each state is further divided into Local Government Areas (LGAs). There are 774 LGAs in Nigeria. For each state they are listed in the article for that state. Kano State has the largest number of LGAs at 44, and Bayelsa State has the fewest at 9. The Federal Capital Territory of Abuja has 6 LGAs. The Local Government Areas replaced the Districts that were the third tier administrative unit under the British government.
The military of Nigeria has played a major role in the country's history, often seizing control of the country and ruling it through major periods of its history. Its last period of rule ended in 1999 following the death of the leader of the previous military junta Sani Abacha in 1998.
Active duty personnel in the three Nigerian armed services is total approximately 76,000. The Nigerian Army, the largest of the services, has about 60,000 personnel deployed in two mechanized infantry divisions, one composite division (airborne and amphibious), the Lagos Garrison Command (a division size unit), and the Abuja-based Brigade of Guards. It has demonstrated its capability to mobilize, deploy, and sustain battalions in support of peacekeeping operations in Liberia, former Yugoslavia, Angola, Rwanda, Somalia, and Sierra Leone. The Nigerian Navy (7,000) is equipped with frigates, fast attack craft, convettes, and coastal patrol boats. The Nigerian Air Force (9,000) flies transport, trainer, helicopter, and fighter aircraft, but most are currently not operational. Nigeria also has pursued a policy of developing domestic training and military production capabilities. Nigeria has continued a strict policy of diversification in its military procurement from various countries. After the imposition of sanctions by many Western nations, Nigeria turned to the People's Republic of China, Russia, North Korea, and India for the purchase of military equipment and training.
Nigeria’s climate is moderated by its location. It shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the south and it borders Lake Chad to the northeast. Noted geographical features in Nigeria include the Adamawa highlands, Mambilla Plateau, Jos Plateau, Obudu Plateau, the Niger River, River Benue and Niger Delta. The country's geographic coordinates are 10°00′N 8°00′E10°N 8°E.
Nigeria is found in the Tropics, making the country a tropical country with a tropical climate type where seasons are damp and very humid. Nigeria is affected by four climate types; these climate types are distinguishable, as one moves from the southern part of Nigeria to the northern part of Nigeria through Nigeria's middle belt.
Climate types found in Nigeria
1. The Tropical rainforest climate or the Equatorial monsoon, is found in the southern part of the country. This climate is influenced by the monsoons originating from the South Atlantic ocean, which is brought into the country by the (maritime tropical) MT airmass, a warm moist sea to land seasonal wind. Its warmth and high humidity gives it a strong tendency to ascend and produce copious rainfall, which is a result of the condensation of water vapor in the rapidly rising air.
The Tropical rainforest climate has a very small temperature range. The temperature ranges are almost constant throughout the year
The southern part of Nigeria experiences heavy and abundant rainfall. These storms are usually convectional in nature due to the regions proximity, to the equatorial belt. The annual rainfall received in this region is very high, usually above the 2,000 mm (78.7 in) rainfall totals giving for tropical rainforest climates worldwide. Over 4,000 mm (157.5 in) of rainfall is received in the coastal region of Nigeria around the Niger delta area. Bonny town found in the coastal region of the Niger delta area in southern Nigeria receives well over 4,000 mm (157.5 in) of rainfall annually. The rest of the southeast receives between 2,000 and 3,000 mm (118.1 in) of rain per year.
The southern region of Nigeria experiences a double rainfall maxima characterized by two high rainfall peaks, with a short dry season and a longer dry season falling between and after each peaks. The first rainy season begins around March and last to the end of July with a peak in June, this rainy season is followed by a short dry break in August known as the August break which is a short dry season lasting for two to three weeks in August. This break is broken by the Short rainy season starting around early September and lasting to Mid October with a peak period at the end of September. The ending of the short rainy season in October is followed by Long Dry Season. This period starts from late October and lasts till early March with peak dry conditions between early December and late February.
2. The Tropical savanna climate or Tropical wet and dry climate, is extensive in area and covers most of Western Nigeria to central Nigeria beginning from the Tropical rainforest climate boundary in southern Nigeria to the central part of Nigeria, where it exerts enormous influence on the region.
This climate, the tropical savanna climate exhibits a well marked Rainy season and a dry season with a single peak known as the summer maximum due to its distance from the equator. Temperatures are above 18 °C (64 °F) throughout the year. Abuja, Nigeria's capital city found in central Nigeria, has a temperature range of 18.45 °C (65.21 °F) to 36.05 °C (96.89 °F), and an annual rainfall of about 1,500 mm (59.1 in) with a single rainfall maxima in September.
The single Dry season experienced in this climate, the tropical savanna climate in central Nigeria beginning from December to march, is hot and dry with the Harmattan wind, a continental tropical(CT) airmass laden with dust from the Sahara Desert prevailing throughout this period.
With the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) swinging northward over West Africa from the Southern Hemisphere in April, heavy showers coming from pre-monsoonal convective clouds mainly in the form of squall lines also known as the north easterlies formed mainly as a result of the interactions of the two dominant airmasses in Nigeria known as the Maritime tropical(south westerlies) and the Continental tropical(north easterlies), begins in central Nigeria while the Monsoons from the south atlantic ocean arrives in central Nigeria in July bringing with it high humidity, heavy cloud cover and heavy rainfall which can be daily occurrence lasting till September when the monsoons gradually begin retreating southward to the southern part of Nigeria. Rainfall totals in central Nigeria varies from 1,100 mm (43.3 in) in the lowlands of the river Niger Benue trough to over 2,000 mm (78.7 in) along the south western escarpment of the Jos Plateau and the southern Kaduna highlands which extents into Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory, just north of Abuja city, due to orographic activities on the highlands in central Nigeria.
3. The Sahel Climate or Tropical dry climate, is the predominant climate type in the northern part of Nigeria. Annual rainfall totals are lower compared to the southern and central part of Nigeria. Rainy season in the northern part of Nigeria last for only three to four months (June–September). The rest of the year is hot and dry with temperatures climbing as high as 40 °C (104.0 °F)
4. Alpine climate or highland climate or mountain climate, are found on highlands regions in Nigeria. Highlands with the alpine climate in Nigeria, are well over 1,520 metres (4,987 ft) above sea level. Due to their location in the tropics, this elevation is high enough to reach the temperate climate line in the tropics thereby giving the highlands, mountains and the plateau regions standing above this height, a cool mountain climate.
Nigeria, like the rest of West Africa and other tropical lands, has only two seasons. These are the Dry season and the Rainy season.
The dry season is accompanied by a dust laden airmass from the Sahara Desert, locally known as Harmattan, or by its main name, The Tropical Continental (CT) airmass.
The rainy season is heavily influenced by an airmass originating from the south atlantic ocean, locally known as the south west wind, or by its main name, The Tropical Maritime (MT) airmass. These two major wind systems in Nigeria are known as the trade winds.
Nigeria's location in the tropics has giving her a tropical hot climate. Temperatures in Nigeria varies according to the seasons of the year as with other lands found in the tropics. Nigeria's seasons are determined by rainfall with rainy season and dry season being the major seasons in Nigeria.
The rainy season of Nigeria brings in cooler weather to the country as a result of an increased cloud cover that acts as a blockage to the intense sunshine of the tropics by blocking much of the suns rays in the rainy season; this in turn cools the land, and the winds above the ground remains cool thereby making for cooler temperatures during the rainy season. But afternoons in the rainy season can be hot and humid, a feature of tropical climates.
The dry season of Nigeria is a period of little cloud cover in the southern part of Nigeria to virtually no cloud cover in the northern part of Nigeria. The sun shines through the atmosphere with little obstructions from the clear skies making the dry season in Nigeria a period of warm weather conditions. In the middle of the dry season around December, a dusty wind from the Sahara Desert called the harmattan enters Nigeria from the northeastern part of the country blocking sun rays partially from shining and also creating haze in the atmosphere, this activities of the wind lowers temperatures considerably saving inhabitants for sometime, from the scorching heat that would have occurred as a result of clearer skies during the dry season. But with the withdrawal of this wind around March to April following the unset of the rainy season, temperatures can go as high as 44 °C (111.2 °F) in some parts of Nigeria.
Semi temperate weather conditions prevail on the highlands in central Nigeria above 1,200 metres (3,937 ft) above sea level, namely the Jos Plateau. Temperatures on the Jos plateau ranges between 21°C to 25°C which are cool all year round.
Temperate weather conditions occur on the highlands along the Nigeria Cameroon border, in the eastern part of Nigeria. Highlands in these region attain an average height of more than 1,524 m (5,000 ft) to some standing above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) above sea level. The climate on these highlands is temperate all year round. The major highlands in this region are the Obudu Plateau above 1,584 m (5,197 ft) , Mambilla Plateau above 1,524 m (5,000 ft) and Mt Chappal Waddi above 2,000 m (6,562 ft).
Nigeria is covered by three types of vegetation:
- Forests (where there is significant tree cover),
- Savannahs (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees), and
- Montane land. (The latter is the least common, and is mainly found in the mountains near the Cameroonian border.) Both the forest zone and the savannah zone are divided into three parts.
Some of the forest zone's most southerly portion, especially around the Niger River and Cross River deltas, is mangrove swamp (see Central African mangroves). North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water mangrove swamps, and north of that is rain forest.
The savannah zone's three categories are divided into mm' Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, made up of plains of tall grass which are interrupted by trees, the most common across the country; Sudan savannah, similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees; and Sahel savannah patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast.
Nigeria has a diverse and rich cultural history. The people are friendly.
The culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigeria's multiple ethnic groups. The country has over 50 languages and over 250 dialects and ethnic groups. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani who are predominant in the north, the Igbo who are predominant in the south-east, and the Yoruba who are predominant in the southwest.
The Edo people are predominant in the region between Yorubaland and Igboland. Much of the Edo tend to be Christian while the remaining 20 percent worship deities called Ogu. This group is followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik people of the coastal southeastern Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta.
The rest of Nigeria's ethnic groups (sometimes called 'minorities') are found all over the country but especially in the middle belt and north. The Hausa tend to be Muslim and the Igbo are predominantly Christian. The Efik, Ibibio, Annang people are mainly Christian. The Yoruba have a balance of members that are adherent to both Islam and Christianity. Indigenous religious practices remain important in all of Nigeria's ethnic groups, these beliefs are often blended with Christian beliefs.
There are small minorities of British, American, East Indian, Chinese (est. 50,000), white Zimbabwean, Japanese, Greek, Syrian and Lebanese immigrants in Nigeria. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution.
In the middle of the 19th century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria. Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saros (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil) later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities.
Nigeria is famous for its English language literature, apart from English language being its international language, pidgin is also a lingua franca that was common among illiterates and the street touts who cannot speak the formal English but nowadays everybody including the rich and the poor, the literates and the illiterates all speak Pidgin English which is a picture of English and other slang like 'How you dey' instead of 'How are you' and its popular music. Since the 1990s the Nigerian movie industry, sometimes called "Nollywood" has emerged as a fast-growing cultural force all over the continent. All over the country, and even increasingly in the conservative north, western music, dresses and movies are ever popular.
Soccer is extremely popular throughout the country and especially among the youth, both field soccer and professional international soccer, has developed into a cult of unity and division. Supporters of English football clubs Manchester United, Arsenal, Liverpool and Chelsea often segregate beyond the traditional tribal and even religious divide to share their common cause in Premier League teams. The Nigeria national football team, nicknamed the Super Eagles, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation (NFF). According to the FIFA World Rankings, Nigeria ranks 22nd and holds the third highest place among the African nations behind Cameroon (11th) and Côte d'Ivoire (16th). The highest position ever reached on the ranking was 5th in April 1994.
Nigerian food embellishes a rich blend of traditionally African carbohydrates such as Yam and Cassava as well as vegetable soups made from native green leaves. Praised by Nigerians for the strength it gives, Garri is a powdered Cassava Grain that can be readily eaten as a meal and is quite cheap. Yam is either fried in oil or pounded to make a Mashed Potato like Yam pottage. Nigerian beans, quite different from green peas, is widely popular. Meat is also popular and Nigerian Suya, a barbecue like method of roasting meat, is a well known delicacy. Bush meat, meat from wild game like deer and giraffes is also popular. Fermented palm products is used to make a traditional liquor, Palm Wine, as is fermented Cassava. Nigerian foods are spicy mostly in the western and southern part of the country even than Indian cuisine but since culture is dynamic some Nigerians do not like spicy food.
The music of Nigeria includes many kinds of folk and popular music, some of which are known worldwide. Traditional musicians use a number of diverse instruments, such as the Gongon drums.
Other traditional cultural expressions are found in the various masquerades of Nigeria, such as the Eyo masquerades, the Ekpe and Ekpo Masquerades of the Efik/Ibibio/Annang/Igbo peoples of coastal south-eastern Nigeria, and the Northern Edo Masquerades. The most popular Yoruba wooden masks are the Gelede masquerades.
For a foreigner who might be interested in watching Nigerians films also known as Nollywood should go for Tunde kelani films especially SAWOROIDE or Tade Ogidan films. And for modern music with genres of pop, hip-hop or rap, D'banj, P-square, Terry G, Banky W, Tu face, Naettto C should be the artiste to be searching for.
A very important source of information on Modern Nigerian Art is the Virtual Museum of Modern Nigerian Art operated by the Pan-African University, Lagos.
Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The largest ethnic groups are the Fulani/Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, accounting for 68% of population,(Quote Source) while the Edo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira Nupe and Tiv comprise 27%; other minorities make up the remaining 7%.The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group (usually believed to be northern groups) numerical superiority.
Nigeria is known as the most populous black nation on earth. It boasts the highest population in Africa with over 167 million inhabitants (2011 population estimate) representing about one-sixth of the continent’s population. It a market that every serious business cannot afford to ignore. Business owners and entrepreneurs that have come to Nigeria have found reasons to be happy about their decision. You have the population, the market, the consumers and the purchasing power.
The most numerous ethnic group in the northern two-thirds of the country is the Hausa-Fulani, the overwhelming majority of whom are Muslim. Other major ethnic groups of the north are the Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. The Yoruba people are the most numerous in the southwest. Over half of the Yorubas are Christian and about a quarter are Muslim, with the remainder hold traditional Yoruba views. The predominantly Christian Igbo are the largest ethnic group in the southeast. Roman Catholics are the largest denomination, but Pentecostal and other Evangelical denominations are also strong. The Efik, Ibibio, Annang, and Ijaw (the country's fourth-largest ethnic group) communities also comprise a substantial segment of the population in that area. Persons of different language backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo are the most widely used Nigerian languages. (source: www.wikipedia.org)
Major places of high population concentration include:
Aba, Enugu, Onitsha and Owerri
Port Harcourt and Benin City
Ibadan, Abeokuta, Lagos.
Population and Population Projections from the CIA World Factbook,
Population: 155,215,573 (July 2011 est.)
According to the United Nations, the population of Nigeria will reach 390 million by 2050. In 2100, the population of Nigeria will reach 730 million.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the population of Nigeria will reach 402 million by 2050. Nigeria will then be the 4th most populous country in the world.
Nigeria has a very active population. There is a virile labour force. The male population appears to outstrip the female population with some 5% margin. So businesses that cite in Nigeria are assured of a teaming and active workforce.
0-14 years: 40.9% (male 32,476,681/female 31,064,539)
15-64 years: 55.9% (male 44,296,228/female 42,534,542)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,341,228/female 2,502,355) (2011 est.)
Population growth rate
- total: 19 years
- male: 18.9 years
- female: 19.1 years (2009 est.)
- 43 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
- 36.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
- 35.51 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
- 18 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
- 16.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
- 16.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Net migration rate
- 0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
- -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
- at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate
- 94.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 51.56 years
- male: 51.58 years
- female: 51.55 years (2000 est.)
- total population: 46.94 years
- male: 46.16 years
- female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate
- 4.73 children born/woman (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS - deaths
In the absence of an up to date census, other population figures do not follow scientific procedures. Only these are backed by settlement figures provided by the government.
English is the official language spoken and written in Nigeria. It is the medium of instruction and of business. The majority can communicate in English. Other languages spoken are Igbo, Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo Fulani, Efik and, Ijaw.
Literacy is quite high in the urban and semi-urban locations in Nigeria. According to data from the bureau of statistics, at least 78% of Nigerians can read and write. The 22% remaining are found mostly in the rural areas. In the northern part majority can read and write in Arabic.
Of the 78% literate society, 84% of the male population and 73% of the females are literate.
Nigeria is a secular state. There is freedom of religion and religious affiliations are allowed. The major religions are Christianity and Islam with the adherents being in the near ratio of 50/50. The Eastern part is predominantly Christian, the North predominantly Islam while the South West is about 70% Christian and 30% Islam.
Nigeria is richly blessed with natural resources. It may not be out of place to describe the entire land as the lad of “good Gold”. Therefore anyone can successfully set up business in Nigeria and make it big time. All around wherever you look there are resources to be exploited for business and for profit. These resources occur naturally and only an ingenious n=mind to harvest and combine them for profitable ventures. We have herein broken the resources into nine (9) broad categories:
- Human Capital
- Vast Land
- Good and friendly weather
- Forest Trees
- Agricultural produce
- Mineral Deposits
- Rivers, Lakes and Ocean
Nigeria’s greatest wealth is her people made up of over 167 million men and women. Nigeria has a quality population educated and trained in various skills and disciplines. Nigerians rank among the best in IT, engineering, education and the sciences. They can be found in leading sectors in leading industrial nations contributing their quarter to society’s advancement. They are also many in leading educational institutions around the world as teachers, lecturers and researchers. Companies that come to do business in Nigeria have no problem getting the required manpower to run their businesses.
Another advantage of Nigeria is her vast land resources for business and industry. The country boasts of more than 923 sq km of land which is about twice the size of the State of California in the USA. It is not just land but good land all the way from Lagos to Sokoto to Maiduguri to Calabar to Abuja and all the hinterland. Besides, the country has about 800 km of coastline in addition to beautifully undulating topography with a mesh of flat lands, high lands, swampy lands, sandy lands and hillside countries. It has all that you need to cite and run whatever industry you desire to set up. Take a peep at the country and you will never look back. Good and Friendly weather
It is on record that Nigeria’s climate is one of blessed resources. The country is does not suffer from the extremes in weather conditions that are detrimental to people, work and play. The climate is tropical in nature and yet with a medley of weather conditions that just anyone from any part of the world can adapt to. The Jos plateau, Adamawa highlands and Enugu have moderated climate seemingly cool in nature.
The general climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north. The yearly average temperature is 28% C. The temperatures are higher in the northern particularly in the dry season as compared to the north. The greatest fluctuation in temperatures is experienced in the inland areas, especially those in the northeast. Before the onset of the rains, temperatures often soar to 44° C, dropping to a significantly cooler 6° C when between December to February cool airs from the north invade the country. Average highs and lows for Lagos are 31° C and 23° C in January and 28° C and 23° C in June
The Forest Tress include:
- Forests in South West
- Forests in the South – south
- Forests in the South East
The forest trees include
- Black afara
The agricultural resources include food and cash crops among which are:
Nigeria’s food crops include:
- Cashew nuts
- Palm oil
- Water melon
The cash crops include:
- Cashew nuts
- Gum arabic
- Bitter Kola
- Palm kernels
Livestock and Fishery Resources.
The livestock include:
- Guinea fowls
The fishes include:
- Cat fish
- Moon fish
- Shiny nose
- Thread fin
Mineral Resources in Nigeria (by State)
- Abia: Glass Sand, limestone, Salt, Shale, Ball Clay, Granite, Galena, marble, laterite, bentonite, phosphate, kaolin, pyrite, feldspar, petroleum, lignite, gypsum, sphalerite, clay.
- Adamawa: Granite, clay, gypsum, limestone, uranium, kaolin, coal, trona, barite salt, marble, magnesite, laterite.
- Akwa Ibom: clay, glass sand, salt, silica sand, granite, coal, petroleum, Natural Gas, Kaolin, limestone, lignite.
- Anambra: clay, iron Stone, Natural Gas, petroleum, sand stone, Kaolin, pyrite, lignite.
- Bauchi: kaolin, Trona, gypsum, cassiterite, mica, clay, tantalite, galena, iron ore, gemstone, sphalerite, silica sand, Barite, columbite, Zinc, Lead, Muscovite, Quartz, Tin, glass sand, monazite, Feldspar, Graphite, Wolfram, Coal, Agate, Tentalum, Rutile, Tungsten, Copper, Talc, Limenite, Ziron.
- Bayelsa: salt, petroleum, Natural gas, Silica Sand, Bentonite, crude Salt, petroleum, limestone, glass sand.
- Benue: Gemstone, Barites, Feldspar, Marble, Mica, silica Sand, quartz, Galena, lead, zinc ore, silica sand, clay, crushed and dimension stone, fluorspar, wolframite, bauxite, shale, magnetie, Limenite, Brenite.
- Borno: Silica Sand, Natural Salt, sapphire, topaz, mica, quartz, gypsum, uranium, iron ore, megnesite, fedspar, Granite Aquamarine, Nepheline, Limestone, Kaolin, bentonite, laterite, Refractory Clay, Trona, Gold, Tin, Potash.
- Cross River: Salt Limestone, Coal, Maganese, Mica, Limenite, Gold, Quartz, Glass sand, tourmaline, petroleum, Natural Gas, Kaolin, Tin ore, Sharp Sand, spring water, salt deposit, Talc, Granite, Galena, Lead, Zinc, Tin Ore, Muscovite, Uranium, Barite.
- Delta. Kaolin, Lateritic Clay, Gravel, Silica Sand, Natural Gas, Petroleum, Ball Clay, Bauxite, Granite, River Sand, Clay, Spring Water.
- Ebonyi: Lead, Zinc ore, Salt, Limestone, Ball Clay, Refractory Clay, Gypsum, Granite.
- Edo: Chamockite, Copper, Gold, Marble, Granite, Gypsium, Petroleum, Dorite,
Lignite, Limestone, Ceramic Clay.
- Ekiti: Clay, Chamokite, Quartz, Lignite, Limestone, Granite, Gemstone, Bauxite,
Cassiterite, Clumbite, Tantalite, Feldspar, Kaolin.
- Imo: Crude oil, Shale, Natural Gas, Kaolin, Laterite Sand, Limestone, Salt, Marble.
- Jigawa: Glass Sand, Granite, Laterite Clay, Silica, Kaolin, Iron Ore, Qurtz, Potash,
Talc, Limenite, Gemstone, Columbite.
- Kaduna: Muscovite, Granite, Gold, Manganese, Clay, Graphite, Sand, Zircon, Kyanite, Tin Ore, Limenite, Gemstone, Columbite.
- Kano: Clay, Laterite, Cassiterite, Columbite, llmeniteGalena, Phyrochlorite, Kaoline, Gemstone, Silica, Tin Ore, Monazite, Wolframite, Thorium, Granite, Hyalite, Kaolin, Beryl, Amethyst, Gold.
- Kastina: Gold ,Manganese, Lateritic Clay, Feldspar, Black Tourmaline, Amethyst,
Quartz, Kaolin, Mica, Gypsum, Silimanite, Clay, Granite, Sand, Uranium Asbestos,
Tourmalin, Serpentine (Chresolite Asbestos), Chromites, Limenite, diamond, graphite, Iron Ore, Potash, Silica Sand.
- Kebbi: Salt, Iron Ore, Gold, Feldspar, Limestone, Quartz, Bauxitic Clay, Manganese, Kaolin, Mica.
- Kogi: Clay, Iron Ore, Gemstone, Marble, Limestone, Feldspar, Dolomite, Phosphate, Mica, Cassiterite, Granite, Ornamental Stone, Coal, Kaolin.
- Kwara: Clay, Kaolin, Silica Sand, Quartz, Dolomite, Marble, Feldspar, Gold,
Tantalite, Cassiterite, Granite, Limestone.
- Lagos: Silica Sand, Bitumen, Sharp Sand, Gravel, Petroleum, Laterite.
- Nassarawa: Cassiterite, Gemstone, A,ethyst, Beryl, Cherysolite, Emerald, Gamet,
Sapphire, Topaz, Barites, Galena, Monazite, Zicron, Glass sand, Coal .
- Niger: Bell Clay, kaolin, limestone, Granite, Glass Sand, iron ore, red clay, feldspar, silica sand, Quartz, Asbestos, marble, Talc, Gemstone.
- Ogun: kaolin, Feldspar, Silica sand, Mica, Granite, Clay, phosphate, gypsum, limestone, quartz, Tar sand.
- Ondo: Marble, Gold, Gemstone, Diorite, lignite.
- Osun: Clay, Granite, Talc, Dolomite, Feldspar, Quartz, Limestone, Mica,.
- Oyo: Clay, Feldspar, Granite, Limonite, iron ore, Kaolin, Quartz, Talc, Marble, Dolomite, Tourmaline, Aquamarine, Amethyst,
- Plateau: Monazite, columbite, Feldspar, Clay, Cassiterite, Gemstone, Kaolin, Dolomite, Mica, Zicron, Marble, Limonite, Barite, Quartz, Talc, Galena.
- Rivers: petroleum, Natural gas, Silica sand, Glass sand, clay
- Sokoto: Silica sand, Clay, salt, limestone, Phosphate, gypsum, kaolin, laterite, potash, granite.
- Enugu: Laterite Clay, Crude oil, kaolinitic clay, iron ore, glass sand, petroleum, gypsum, coal, silica sand ceramics.
- Gombe: graphite, Kaolin, Limestone, Silica sand, Uranium, Coal, Halites, Clay, Gypsum, Diatomite, Granite.
- Taraba: Flurspar, Gamet, Tourmaline, Sapphire, Zicron, Tantalite, Columbite, Cassiterite, barite, Gelena, Limestone, Laterite, calcite, Bentonitic clay.
- Yobe: salt, Trona, diatomite, clay, gypsum, kaolin silica sand, limestone, Epsomite, iron ore, shale, uranium, granite, bentonic Clay.
- Zamfara: Gold, Alluvia Gold, Granite, Chromites, chamorckite, clay, Feldspar, spring water.
- Federal Capital Territory: Limestone, Kaolin, granite, marble, feldspar, mica, dolomite, clay, sand, talc.
Rivers, Lakes and Oceans
- River Niger
- River Benue
- Imo River
- River Anambra
- River Cross
- Ethiope River
- Osun River
- River Hadejia
- Kaduna River
- Azumiri River
- Rima River
- Ogun River
- Ogunpa River
- Sokoto River
- Bonny River
- Aba River
- Calabar River
- Donga River
- Ekulu River
- Escravos River
- Njabba River
- Forcados River
- Gadar Tamburawa River
- Gongola River
- Great Kwa River
- Goulbi de Maradi River
- Jamaare River
- Ka River
- Katsina Ala River
- Kwa Ibo River
- Ngadda River
- Ebonyi river
- New Calabar River
- Nun River
- Otamiri River
- Oueme River
- Oramiriukwa river
- Yobe River
- Zamfara River
- Lagos Lagoons
- Numerous brookes and streams
Lakes of Nigeria
Waterfalls in Nigeria
Natural Springs in Nigeria
- Oguta Lake - Imo
- Nike Lake - Enugu
- Lake Chad - Borno
- Wullum Lake –Adamawa
- Kuyi Lake – Taraba
- Ebomi Lake – Ondo
- Lake Ji – Taraba
- Lake Bimari – Taraba
- Lake Abadaba – Imo
- Kainji Lake – Nigeria
- Okposi salt lake – Ebonyi
- Uburu salt lake – Ebonyi
- Assop Falls – Plateau
- Owu fall – Kwara
- Gurara falls – Niger
- Ipole-Iloro falls – Ondo
- Enemebia falls – Benue
- Olumiri falls – Ondo
- Kura falls – Plateau
- Kwa falls – Cross River
- Agbokin falls – Cross River
- Mait Sirga falls – Kaduna
- Erin Ijesa falls – Osun
- Wiki falls – Bauchi
- Ogba waterfall - Anambra
- Ikogosi Warm Spring– Ondo
- Ngeji warm springs – Borno
- Wiki Hot springs – Bauchi
- Farin Ruwa – Nassarawa
- Okpu Ana - Anambra
Besides the foregoing, Nigeria boasts of immense talents among its people. These are never in short supply. Nigerian’s old and young alike in music, singing, painting, dancing, acting, sculpturing.
Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market, and has already reached middle income status according to the World Bank, with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second largest in Africa.
|Nigeria is ranked 37th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2007. Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. of any country worldwide. Nigeria is currently the 50th-largest export market for U.S. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U.S. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected economic growth of 9% in 2008 and 8.3% in 2009. The IMF further projects a 8% growth in the Nigerian economy in 2011.
According to Citigroup, Nigeria will get the highest average GDP growth in the world between 2010–2050. Nigeria is one of two countries from Africa among 11 Global Growth Generators countries.
Previously, economic development had been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. It is now the second largest economy in Africa (following South Africa), and the largest economy in the West Africa Region.
Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African Country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club.
Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. (The country joined OPEC in 1971). Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of Government earnings. However, agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta, its main oil producing region, has led to disruptions in oil production and currently prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity.
Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world, major emerging market operators (like MTN, Etisalat, Zain and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country. The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space based communications. Nigeria has a space satellite which is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja.
Banking and Finance
The country has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks. Following the consolidation exercise of 2004, the number of banks reduced from 120 to just 25. And following mergers and acquisitions the number currently stands at 24 with indications for further reduction to about 22. Some of the leading financial institutions include Diamond Bank, Fidelity Bank, UBA, UBN, Zenith, Stanbic IBTC Bank, Express Discount House.
Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in its infancy.
Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. At one time, Nigeria was the world's largest exporter of groundnuts, cocoa, and palm oil and a significant producer of coconuts, citrus fruits, maize, pearl millet, cassava, yams and sugar cane. About 60% of Nigerians work in the agricultural sector, and Nigeria has vast areas of underutilized arable land.
It also has a manufacturing industry which includes leather and textiles (centred Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos), car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), t-shirts, plastics and processed food.
Nigeria boasts of a huge commercial market. The country has being described as a consuming nation, a nation fostered by the huge trading and buying populace. Major commercial centers include Aba, Onitsha, Lagos, Ibadan, Kano, Kaduna and Maiduguri.
The country has recently made considerable amount of revenue from home made Nigerian Movies which are sold locally and Internationally. These movies are popular in other African countries and among African immigrants in Europe.
Science and technology
Three satellites have been launched by the Nigerian government into space. The Nigeriasat-1 was the first satellite to be built under the Nigerian government sponsorship. The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September 2003. Nigeriasat-1 was part of the world-wide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning; and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders.
NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom-based satellite technology company. It has 2.5-metre resolution panchromatic (very high resolution), 5-metre multispectral (high resolution, NIR red, green and red bands), and 32-metre multispectral (medium resolution, NIR red, green and red bands) antennas, with a ground receiving station in Abuja. The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft alone was built at a cost of over £35 million. This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China.
NigComSat-1, a Nigerian satellite built in 2004, was Nigeria's third satellite and Africa's first communication satellite. It was launched on 13 May 2007, aboard a Chinese Long March 3B carrier rocket, from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre in China. The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat and the Nigerian Space Agency, NASRDA.
Summary of Nigeria’s economic Data
GDP: purchasing power parity – $459.4 billion (2009 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 7% (July 2006 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $3460 (2009 est.)
GDP – composition by sector:
Services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 78.98%(2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:r
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 35.8% (1996–97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 57.21 million
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.9% NA (2005 est.)
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $13.54 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2005 est.)
Electricity – production: 15.59 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity – production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.69%
other: <.1% (1998)
Electricity - consumption: 14.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 40 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)
Oil - production: 2.35 million barrels per day (374×103 m3/d) (July 2006 est.)
Oil - consumption: 310,000 bbl/d (49,000 m3/d) (2003 est.)
Agriculture – products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Exports: $72.16 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports – commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports – partners: United States 47.4%, Brazil 10.7%, Spain 7.1%(2004)
Imports: $45.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports – partners: the People's Republic of China 9.4%, United States 8.4%, United Kingdom 7.8%, Netherlands 5.9%, France 5.4%, Germany 4.8%, Italy 4% (2004)
Debt – external: $3.3 billion with London Club(2006 est.)
Economic aid – recipient: IMF $250 million (1998)
Currency: 1 Naira (NGN) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates: Naira (NGN) per US$1 – 149.5 (2009), 120 (2006), 128 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002), 111.23 (2001)
External Reserves: $59 billion ( 2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year 2009